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Here’s a simple solution to find out how solar panels work  

What's solar energy ?  
Solar energy is radiant energy that's produced by the sun. Every single day the sun radiates, or sends out, an incredible volume of energy. The sun radiates more energy in one second than people have used since the beginning of time!   The energy of the Sun derives from within the sun itself. Like other stars, the sun is a big ball of gases––mostly hydrogen and helium atoms.  
The hydrogen atoms in the sun’s core combine to form helium and generate energy in a process called nuclear fusion.   During nuclear fusion, the sun’s extremely high pressure and temperature cause hydrogen atoms to come apart and their nuclei (the central cores of the atoms) to fuse or combine. Four hydrogen nuclei fuse to become one helium atom. However the helium atom contains less mass compared to four hydrogen atoms that fused. Some matter is lost during nuclear fusion. The lost matter is emitted into space as radiant energy.  

It requires many years for the energy in the sun’s core to make its way to the solar surface, and just a little over eight minutes to travel the 93 million miles to earth. The solar energy travels to the earth at a speed of 186,000 miles per second, the velocity of light. Simply a small percentage of the energy radiated from the sun into space strikes the earth, one part in two billion. Yet this quantity of energy is enormous.

Everyday enough energy strikes america to supply the nation’s energy needs for one and a half years!  

Where does all of this energy go?  
About 15 percent of the sun’s energy that hits the planet earth is reflected back into space. Another 30 percent is used to evaporate water, which, lifted in to the atmosphere, produces rainfall. Solar power also is absorbed by plants, the land, and the oceans. The remaining could be employed to supply our energy needs.  

Who invented solar technology ?  
Humans have harnessed solar technology for hundreds of years. Since the 7th century B.C., people used simple magnifying glasses to concentrate the light of the sun into beams so hot they would cause wood to catch fire. Over 100 years ago in France, a scientist used heat from a solar collector to make steam to drive a steam engine. In the beginning of this century, scientists and engineers began researching ways to use solar technology in earnest. One important development was obviously a remarkably efficient solar boiler invented by Charles Greeley Abbott, an american astrophysicist, in 1936.   The solar water heater gained popularity at this time in Florida, California, and the Southwest. The industry started in the early 1920s and was in full swing just before The second world war. This growth lasted prior to the mid-1950s when low-cost propane took over as primary fuel for heating American homes.   The public and world governments remained largely indifferent to the possibilities of solar power until the oil shortages of the1970s. Today, people use solar power to heat buildings and water and to generate electricity.  

How we use solar energy today ?  
Solar energy is employed in a variety of ways, of course. There are two very basic kinds of solar power:     * Solar thermal energy collects the sun's warmth through 1 of 2 means: in water or in an anti-freeze (glycol) mixture.    * Solar photovoltaic energy converts the sun's radiation to usable electricity.   Listed below are the five most practical and popular techniques solar energy is used:    

1. Small portable solar photovoltaic systems. We see these used everywhere, from calculators to solar garden tools. Portable units can be utilized for everything from RV appliances while single panel systems are used for traffic signs and remote monitoring stations.    

2. Solar pool heating. Running water in direct circulation systems through a solar collector is an extremely practical solution to heat water for your pool or hot spa.    

3. Thermal glycol energy to heat water. In this method (indirect circulation), glycol is heated by sunshine and the heat is then transferred to water in a warm water tank. This process of collecting the sun's energy is a lot more practical now than ever. In areas as far north as Edmonton, Alberta, solar thermal to heat water is economically sound. It can pay for itself in 36 months or less.  

 4. Integrating solar photovoltaic energy into your home or office power. In many parts on the planet, solar photovoltaics is an economically feasible approach to supplement the power of your property. In Japan, photovoltaics are competitive with other forms of power. In the US, new incentive programs make this form of solar energy ever more viable in many states. An increasingly popular and practical method of integrating solar energy into the power of your home or business is through the usage of building integrated solar photovoltaics.    

5. Large independent photovoltaic systems. If you have enough sun power at your site, you may be able to go off grid. You may also integrate or hybridize your solar power system with wind power or other types of sustainable energy to stay 'off the grid.'   How do Photovoltaic panels work ?   Silicon is mounted beneath non-reflective glass to produce photovoltaic panels. These panels collect photons from the sun, converting them into DC electrical power. The power created then flows into an inverter.

The inverter transforms the power into basic voltage and AC electrical energy.   Photovoltaic cells are prepared with particular materials called semiconductors for example silicon, which is presently the most generally used. When light hits the Photovoltaic cell, a certain share of it is absorbed inside the semiconductor material. This means that the energy of the absorbed light is given to the semiconductor.  

The power unfastens the electrons, permitting them to run freely. Solar power cells also have one or more electric fields that act to compel electrons unfastened by light absorption to flow in a specific direction. This flow of electrons is a current, and by introducing metal links on the top and bottom of the -Photovoltaic cell, the current can be drawn to use it externally.  

Do you know the positives and negatives of solar technology ?  
Solar Pro Arguments   - Heating our homes with oil or propane or using electricity from power plants running with oil and coal is a reason behind global warming and climate disruption. Solar power, on the contrary, is clean and environmentally-friendly.   - Solar hot-water heaters require little maintenance, and their initial investment can be recovered within a relatively short time.   - Solar hot-water heaters can work in nearly every climate, even just in very cold ones.
You just have to choose the right system for your climate: drainback, thermosyphon, batch-ICS, etc.   - Maintenance costs of solar powered systems are minimal and the warranties large.   - Financial incentives (USA, Canada, European states…) can help to eliminate the price of the first investment in solar technologies. The U.S. government, for example, offers tax credits for solar systems certified by by the SRCC (Solar Rating and Certification Corporation), which amount to 30 percent of the investment (2009-2016 period).   Solar Cons Arguments   - The initial investment in Solar Water heaters or in Solar PV Electric Systems is greater than that required by conventional electric and gas heaters systems.   - The payback period of solar PV-electric systems is high, as well as those of solar space heating or solar cooling (only the solar hot water heating payback is short or relatively short).   - Solar water heating do not support a direct combination with radiators (including baseboard ones).   - Some air con (solar space heating and the solar cooling systems) are costly, and rather untested technologies: solar air-con isn't, till now, a truly economical option.   - The efficiency of solar powered systems is rather influenced by sunlight resources. It's in colder climates, where heating or electricity needs are higher, that the efficiency is smaller.  

About the Author - Barbara Young writes on camper solar kit in her personal hobby weblog 12voltsolarpanels.net. Her efforts are devoted to helping people save energy using solar power to reduce CO2 emissions and energy dependency.  

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